The Map pill a (Muslim) tenants of Malabar rebelled in August 1921 against high rents,
oppressive landlords, lack of any security of tonsure and renewal fees, the impetus of which first came from the Malabar district Congress Conference held at Manjeri in April 1920. This conference was followed by the formation of a tenants association of Kozhikode, and soon tenants associations were set up in the region. This was supported by the Khilafat committee also. However, the arrests of prominent leaders of the region like K.
Mahadevon Nair, Gopala Menon, Yakub Hasan etc. in February 1921 left the field clear for radical preachers. The raid on Tiruraingadi Mosque in August 1921, for search of arms sparked off a major rebellion which turned anti- Hindu. In the first stage, rebellion was targeted against unpopular Jenmies (Landlord), who were mostly Hindus, and other colonial symbols. But with the imposition of Martial law, the movement became communal.
The communalization of the rebellion completed the isolation of the Mappillas which was ruthlessly suppressed by the government. By December 1921, unofficially over 10,000 Mappillas were killed and about 50,000 surrendered on were captured, the suppression was such that, till independence, the Mappillas neither joined the national movement nor the peasant’s movement nor any other type of political participation was made.